Transportation Ebooks


Traffic Signal Systems

TRB's Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2035 includes 23 papers that explore data-driven algorithms for coordinated traffic signal systems, precedence graphs for traffic signal operations modeling, coordinated traffic signals during transition, diamond interchanges at closely spaced intersections, advance preempt with gate-down confirmation for railroad grade crossings, video detection system impacts on signalized intersections, and genetic algorithm optimization of signal timings.

This issue of the TRR also examines the real-time prediction of delay and queue length at signalized intersections, lane-by-lane detection at actuated controlled intersections, dilemma zone design, actuated controller performance measures, detector configurations on high-speed approaches to traffic signals, interrelationship between passage time and detection zone length at intersections, empirical observations of dilemma zones, hardware-in-the-loop simulation, and light rail transit priority at grade crossings.

In addition, this TRR explores cycle length optimization, traffic signal transition strategies for exit preemption control, traffic simulation for decision support in real-time regional traffic management, opening the new Woodrow Wilson Memorial Bridge, uncertainty in benefit-cost evaluations of intelligent transportation systems, traffic operations for hurricane evacuation, and effects of toll strategies on route diversion and travel time.

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Research Pays Off

Cracking is common in Oregon's Interstate-era reinforced concrete deck girder (RCDG) bridges. In 2001, of the 555 RCDG bridges owned by Oregon, 487 had structural cracks. By 2003, 140 bridges had load restrictions. At the time it was thought that billions of dollars would be needed to repair and replace bridges to maintain freight mobility and highway safety. However, in 2002, the Oregon Department of Transportation (DOT) contracted with Oregon State University to investigate the load capacity and fatigue damage of cracked RCDG bridges.

The research results conclusively indicated that the steel reinforcement in cracked RCDG bridges was not undergoing fatigue damage. Furthermore, cracks did not necessarily indicate that a girder had lost load capacity; in short, the crack density and the crack size were not good indicators of damage level.

Research revealed that the calculations for the load and resistance factor rating (LRFR)-the newest code for rating bridge capacity-accurately accommodate the effects of cracks. Oregon DOT has adopted the LRFR with Oregon-specific live-load factors, confident that the method provides a high degree of reliability and safety in rating the many cracked RCDG bridges in the state.

The shift to LRFR has improved the load rating values for many of the cracked RCDG bridges rated as insufficient under the previous method. As a result, 120 bridges were removed from the list of those to be replaced, and 80 bridges were shifted from the list of those to be repaired or replaced to the list of those that require no work.

From 2001 to 2003, the Oregon legislature allocated nearly $1.8 billion for bridge repair and replacement. After reevaluating the bridge work, Oregon DOT estimates that approximately half a billion dollars could be reallocated from the initial set of bridges designated for repair or replacement to other needed bridge improvements.

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Duties Of The Consignor

Definition of Consignor:

The consignor of the goods is any of the following

  • A person who is identified as the consignor in shipping companies documentation
    for the transport of the goods by road
  • A person who engages a prime contractor, either directly
    or through an agent or other intermediary, to transport the goods by road
  • A person who has possession or control over the goods immediately before
    the goods are transported
  • A person who loads a vehicle at a place where dangerous goods in bulk are
    stored and that place is unattended during loading
  • If the goods are imported into Australia, the importer is the consignor.

The consignor must not consign dangerous goods by road unless the consignor knows, or reasonably ought to know, that their responsiblities have been met in regard to

  • Shipping documentation
  • Emergency information
  • Packages and bulk containers
  • Freight containers
  • Unit loads

Shipping documentation is to be provided to the prime contractor or driver with separate documents for each part of the load if the load is to be later split for transport on different vehicles. The consignor must ensure the information on the shipping documentation is not false or misleading.

The consignor must not consign a placard load of dangerous goods if the required emergency information is not on the vehicle.

Packaging and Bulk Containers

A person must not consign packaged dangerous goods for transport by road in packaging unless

  • The packaging is suitable for transport, and is an approved or permitted container and
  • If plastic, the packaging is no older than 5 YEARS, unless otherwise approved.

Goods listed as too dangerous to be transported in bulk are not to be consigned in bulk. A bulk container used to transport dangerous goods

  • Must be approved and constructed from material compatible with the
    dangerous goods transported
  • Must not be damaged or defective to the extent that it is not safe
  • If an intermediate bulk container (IBC) of liquid dangerous goods, must have a bottom discharge valve and the outlet must be securely sealed with a secondary closure
  • Must be maintained, tested, inspected, and used in accordance with the ADG Code.

Freight containers used to transport dangerous goods must be

  • Suitable for transport of the goods
  • Free of any defect
  • Clean and dry inside
  • Free of dangerous goods residues.

Packaged dangerous goods transported in a unit load must be safe and prepared in accordance with the ADG Code, appropriately marked

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Marking Of Packages & Unit Loads

The following information outlines the required marking of packages and unit loads with regards to dangerous goods.

A standard marking of a package includes

  • The proper shipping name
  • The UN Number (prefaced with either 'UN' or 'UN No.')
  • The Class label
  • At least one of each Subsidiary Risk label
  • The name and address in Australia of the manufacturer or consignor of the dangerous goods, or their agent.

Inner packaging containing 20ml/g or more of Packing Group I substances, and any inner packaging containing other dangerous goods in quantities requiring marking as specified in Table 1, must be clearly marked with all of
the following

  • Proper shipping or technical name
  • The appropriate Class label
  • Subsidiary Risk label (if applicable).

When packages are required to be marked, the label size must be at least the minimum size. Lettering sizes are desirable but not mandatory.

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